Energetic Development Of Biomass
To date, the biomass for energy production are treated in three ways, suffering from high investment costs (3.5-5 millions/MW installed) and low conversion efficiencies:
Biogas: Presents high operating costs due to the sensitivity of the bacteria used, since to the biomass must be continuously added other materials (further and different biomass, necessary to maintain a fixed ratio of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen); also has low efficiency because only 10% of the biomass is actually converted into energy, the remaining 90% is to be disposed.
Pyrolysis and Gasification: They allow the production of biogas and gasify 90% of the treated material, but it is very difficult to develop industrial plants and it is necessary to maintain a small-scale (there are no industrial plants but only prototypes); also they are two processes that depend inherently on the amount of oxygen used (an excessive amount of oxygen originates combustion, producing heat but not fuel gas, a not sufficient quantity of oxygen produces a fuel gas, but also tar and char, pollutants that reduce the operating time of the machine).
Combustion: It ‘s the most widely used process, but it has low conversion efficiency due to the water contained in the biomass, which causes the loss of the energy needed to vaporize; in addition, since the combustion is a spontaneous reaction, it produces byproducts of combustion uncontrollable and pollutants, which make this system expensive because of the treatments required to stay within the environmental regulations.
The market requires new technologies for energy recovery from biomass, more efficient, with less environmental impact and more adaptable to the different types of biomass.
HTE has developed the Plasma Torch, type hot and cold, for the production of syngas from the synthesis of biomass to be used in co-generators, steam turbine plants, for the production of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane.